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Alternatives to
research using animals

The principle of the 3Rs (Replace, Reduce, Refine) was introduced in 1959 and establishes the accepted standards for research with animals. 


The 3Rs are part of the everyday practice of the European biomedical sector and are an integral part of both national and international laws that regulate the use of animals in scientific procedures. 

The 3Rs are:


Replacement - Methods that prevent or help replace the use of animals


Reduction -

Methods that help reduce the number of animals used in experiments


Refinement - Methods that help minimize any pain or distress and improve animal welfare. 

Non-animal science FAQs
For more information about the 3Rs
around Europe, please visit:
  • Public organisations
    EPV (European Primate Veterinarians) FENS (Federation of European Neurosciences Societies) GIRCOR Hellenic Society for Neuroscience Max Planck Society NOVA Medical School Research4Life SGV (Swiss Laboratory Animal Science Association)
  • Private Organisations
    AAALAC AnimalhealthEurope Charles River Labcorp GSK Inotiv Marshall Bioresources
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