The principle of the 3Rs (Replace, Reduce, Refine) was introduced in 1959 and establishes the accepted standards for research with animals.
The 3Rs are part of the everyday practice of the European biomedical sector and are an integral part of both national and international laws that regulate the use of animals in scientific procedures.
The 3Rs are:
For more information about the 3Rs around Europe, please visit:
Public organisationsEPV (European Primate Veterinarians) FENS (Federation of European Neurosciences Societies) Hellenic Society for Neuroscience Max Planck Society NOVA Medical School Donders Institute, Radboud University SGV (Swiss Laboratory Animal Science Association) SECAL (Spanish Society for Laboratory Animal Sciences)
Private OrganisationsAAALAC AnimalhealthEurope Charles River Labcorp Merck GSK Inotiv Marshall Bioresources