A treatment, that restricts the brain inflammation caused by injury, stroke, or multiple sclerosis in mice, has been developed by a European research team. Treating of brain inflammation is currently very limited as anti-inflammatory drugs are unable to breach the blood-brain barrier - created by endothelial cells that prevent molecules in the blood stream from entering the brain. However, a research team, led by the Babraham Institute, UK, with three EARA members - KU Leuven and VIB, Belgium and i3S-University of Porto, Portugal, has found a way to increase the natural anti-inflammatory action of the body, by increasing T-cell production. T-cells are responsible for stopping the inflammation in our body, but there are only a few T-cells present in the brain. But the team discovered that T-cell production in the brain is attributed to a molecule called, interleukin 2 (IL2), so, they designed a ‘gene delivery’ system which can cross the blood brain barrier and deliver the DNA needed for the brain to produce more IL2. “We hope that this system will soon enter clinical trials, essential to test whether the treatment also works in patients." said Prof.Adrian Liston, from The Babraham Institute. The study is published in Nature Immunology.